Comenzile ca fdisk, sfdisck si cfdisck sunt aplicatii generale care afiseaza informatii despre partitii dar si posibilitatea de a modifica partitiile. Comenzile fdisck, sfdisck si cfdisck nu suporta formatul de partii GPT (GUID Partition Table) si va afisa o eroare daca doriti sa le folositi pe partiti GPT.

Comenzile de mai jos va vor ajuta sa vedeti ce partiti exista si multe alte detalii cum ar fi dimensiunea totala, spatiu folosit si sistemul de fisiere etc.

fdisck – Fdisk este comanda cea mai frecevent utilizata pentru a verifica partitiile de pe un disc. Comanda fdisk ofera informatii detaliate despre partitii, cum ar fi timpul fisierelor de sistem.

$ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 60801 cylinders, total 976773168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x30093008

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *          63   146801969    73400953+   7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda2       146802031   976771071   414984520+   f  W95 Ext'd (LBA)
/dev/sda5       146802033   351614654   102406311    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda6       351614718   556427339   102406311   83  Linux
/dev/sda7       556429312   560427007     1998848   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda8       560429056   976771071   208171008   83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 4048 MB, 4048551936 bytes
54 heads, 9 sectors/track, 16270 cylinders, total 7907328 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0001135d

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1   *        2048     7907327     3952640    b  W95 FAT32

sfdisk – Sfdisk este un alt utilitar cu un scop similar ca fdisk, dar cu mai multe caracteristici. Poate afisa dimensiunea fiecarei partitii in MB.

$ sudo sfdisk -l -uM

Disk /dev/sda: 60801 cylinders, 255 heads, 63 sectors/track
Warning: extended partition does not start at a cylinder boundary.
DOS and Linux will interpret the contents differently.
Units = mebibytes of 1048576 bytes, blocks of 1024 bytes, counting from 0

   Device Boot Start   End    MiB    #blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *     0+ 71680- 71681-  73400953+   7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda2     71680+ 476938  405259- 414984520+   f  W95 Ext'd (LBA)
/dev/sda3         0      -      0          0    0  Empty
/dev/sda4         0      -      0          0    0  Empty
/dev/sda5     71680+ 171686- 100007- 102406311    7  HPFS/NTFS/exFAT
/dev/sda6     171686+ 271693- 100007- 102406311   83  Linux
/dev/sda7     271694  273645   1952    1998848   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda8     273647  476938  203292  208171008   83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 1020 cylinders, 125 heads, 62 sectors/track
Warning: The partition table looks like it was made
  for C/H/S=*/54/9 (instead of 1020/125/62).
For this listing I'll assume that geometry.
Units = mebibytes of 1048576 bytes, blocks of 1024 bytes, counting from 0

   Device Boot Start   End    MiB    #blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1   *     1   3860   3860    3952640    b  W95 FAT32
                start: (c,h,s) expected (4,11,6) found (0,32,33)
                end: (c,h,s) expected (1023,53,9) found (492,53,9)
/dev/sdb2         0      -      0          0    0  Empty
/dev/sdb3         0      -      0          0    0  Empty
/dev/sdb4         0      -      0          0    0  Empty

cfdisk – Cfdisk este un editor de partitii cu o interfata de folosire interactiva bazata pe ncurses. Acesta poate fi folosita pentru a lista partitiile existente, precum si crearea sau modificarea lor.

Exemplu: listarea partitiilor. Momentat Cfdisk functioneaza doar cu o singura partitie. Daca vreti sa vedeti detaliile altei partitii sau disc, trebui sa specificati numele partitiei.

$ sudo cfdisk /dev/sdb

parted – Parted este o alta aplicatie pentru linia de comanda care listeaza partitiile si le modifica daca este necesar.

Exemplu: listare detalii partitie.

$ sudo parted -l
Model: ATA ST3500418AS (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 500GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos

Number  Start   End     Size    Type      File system     Flags
 1      32.3kB  75.2GB  75.2GB  primary   ntfs            boot
 2      75.2GB  500GB   425GB   extended                  lba
 5      75.2GB  180GB   105GB   logical   ntfs
 6      180GB   285GB   105GB   logical   ext4
 7      285GB   287GB   2047MB  logical   linux-swap(v1)
 8      287GB   500GB   213GB   logical   ext4


Model: Sony Storage Media (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdb: 4049MB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos

Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags
 1      1049kB  4049MB  4048MB  primary  fat32        boot

df – DF nu este un utilitar de partitionare, dar afiseaza detalii despre fisierele de sistem montate. Lista generata de DF include fisiere de sisteme ale partitiilor care nu sunt reale.

$ df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda6        97G   43G   49G  48% /
none            4.0K     0  4.0K   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
udev            3.9G  8.0K  3.9G   1% /dev
tmpfs           799M  1.7M  797M   1% /run
none            5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
none            3.9G   12M  3.9G   1% /run/shm
none            100M   20K  100M   1% /run/user
/dev/sda8       196G  154G   33G  83% /media/13f35f59-f023-4d98-b06f-9dfaebefd6c1
/dev/sda5        98G   37G   62G  38% /media/4668484A68483B47

Doar fisierele de sisteme care incep cu /dev sunt dispozitive sau partitii reale.
Utilizati grep pentru a filtra partitiile / fisierele de sisteme.

$ df -h | grep ^/dev
/dev/sda6        97G   43G   49G  48% /
/dev/sda8       196G  154G   33G  83% /media/13f35f59-f023-4d98-b06f-9dfaebefd6c1
/dev/sda5        98G   37G   62G  38% /media/4668484A68483B47

Pentru a afisa numai partitiile reale impreuna cu tipul de partitie, utilizati df astfel:

$ df -h --output=source,fstype,size,used,avail,pcent,target -x tmpfs -x devtmpfs
Filesystem Type Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda6 ext4 97G 43G 49G 48% /
/dev/sda8 ext4 196G 154G 33G 83% /media/13f35f59-f023-4d98-b06f-9dfaebefd6c1
/dev/sda5 fuseblk 98G 37G 62G 38% /media/4668484A68483B47

Retineti ca df afiseaza numai fisierele de sistem sau partitiile montate.

pydf – Este versiunea imbunatatita a df, scrisa in Python. Pydf afiseaza toate partitiile intr-un mod mai usor de citit.

$ pydf
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use%             Mounted on                                 
/dev/sda6   96G  43G   48G 44.7 [####.....] /                                          
/dev/sda8  195G 153G   32G 78.4 [#######..] /media/13f35f59-f023-4d98-b06f-9dfaebefd6c1
/dev/sda5   98G  36G   61G 37.1 [###......] /media/4668484A68483B47

lsblk – Listeaza toate blocurile de stocare, care includ partitiile si unitatile optice. Detaliile includ dimensiunea totala a partitiei/blocului si punctul de montare daca este cazul.

Nu afiseaza spatiul folosit/liber de pe disc/partitie.

$ lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda      8:0    0 465.8G  0 disk 
??sda1   8:1    0    70G  0 part 
??sda2   8:2    0     1K  0 part 
??sda5   8:5    0  97.7G  0 part /media/4668484A68483B47
??sda6   8:6    0  97.7G  0 part /
??sda7   8:7    0   1.9G  0 part [SWAP]
??sda8   8:8    0 198.5G  0 part /media/13f35f59-f023-4d98-b06f-9dfaebefd6c1
sdb      8:16   1   3.8G  0 disk 
??sdb1   8:17   1   3.8G  0 part 
sr0     11:0    1  1024M  0 rom

Daca nu exista nimic montat (MOUNTPOINT), atunci inseamna ca sistemul de fisiere nu este inca montata. Pentru CD/DVD acest lucru inseamna ca nu exista nici o unitate optica.

blkid – Afiseaa dispozitivele (partitii si medii de stocare), atributele UUID si tipul de fisiere de sistem. Nu afiseaza spatiul de la partitii.

$ sudo blkid
/dev/sda1: UUID="5E38BE8B38BE6227" TYPE="ntfs" 
/dev/sda5: UUID="4668484A68483B47" TYPE="ntfs" 
/dev/sda6: UUID="6fa5a72a-ba26-4588-a103-74bb6b33a763" TYPE="ext4" 
/dev/sda7: UUID="94443023-34a1-4428-8f65-2fb02e571dae" TYPE="swap" 
/dev/sda8: UUID="13f35f59-f023-4d98-b06f-9dfaebefd6c1" TYPE="ext4" 
/dev/sdb1: UUID="08D1-8024" TYPE="vfat"

hwinfo – Hwinfo este un instrument general de informatii cu scop hardware si poate fi utilizat pentru a afisa lista cu partitiile si discurile optice.

$ hwinfo --block --short
disk:                                                           
  /dev/sda             ST3500418AS
  /dev/sdb             Sony Storage Media
partition:
  /dev/sda1            Partition
  /dev/sda2            Partition
  /dev/sda5            Partition
  /dev/sda6            Partition
  /dev/sda7            Partition
  /dev/sda8            Partition
  /dev/sdb1            Partition
cdrom:
  /dev/sr0             SONY DVD RW DRU-190

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TENDINTA  |  Executia bash paralel pe procesoare multicore
Andreea                   GNU/Linux.ro
Andreea
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